Audio Books Online You Can Read While You Listen

Sometimes there is nothing so relaxing like reading your favorite title with a bottle of beer to give you company. Your mind cries out for revenge as you read Shakespeare's Othello or is mellowed out as you turn the pages of Walt Whitman's Leaves of the Grass. But alas, the murderous rat race and the bursting everyday schedule have permanently invented such simple luxuries. You just do not have the time to read any more. 'Is there any other alternative to reading a book', you ask yourself. Well, why not someone else reading it for you? All you have to do is listen. Great, is not it? Audio books online are in these days.

Although audio books online have come to stay for quite sometime now, few people have come to grips with it, fewer still indulge in such simple opulence. Thousand of websites beckon you for free audio book online, concluding fiction, non-fiction, classics and more. Even if you are bound to a very strict schedule, there is nothing to prevent you from listening to an audio book online and enjoying every bit of it sans the hassles of going through it page by page.

As the literary works are downloaded to your computer, you may listen to their content at the privacy of your home without any hindrance. No need to visit the local library or browse the archives to find your favorite title. No late fees levied for any delay in returning the book.

But what happens if you are always on the move. Those who are traveling sales persons or departmental heads, perpetually on the road, visiting clients and distributors. For them the answer is simple. As these online audio books can be easily downloaded to the computer, you may burn them onto a CD, take them along and listen while you are driving. No problem at all. Your car CD player will then literally read out choice fragments of Vladimir Nobokov's Lolita as you press the accelerator down to the floor of the vehicle.

Another great advantage that audio books online offer is that they are reusable. In fact, you could listen to them as many times as you prefer, alone or in company of others, in the privacy of your home or while traveling in your car, any place any time of the day or night. No wonder more and more people are opting for audio books online. Websites are vying with each other to get the lion's share of the profit earned from the sale of audio books online.

In some cases, nominal year membership fees are also charged by some websites, depending on the type of audio books you need. You may be overwhelmed by the abundance of the availability of audio books online and the variety that is available. All for the benefit of the reading (or should I say, 'read-listening') public. The day is not very when audio books online may enter the hall of fame for escalating the world literacy.

New Parents Look To Loans To Help Reduce Financial Pressures

Starting a family may see the financial burden consumers are under rising dramatically, it has been suggested.

The news comes as research released by MoneyExpert reveals that those parents who have children under the age of 18 are typically some 1,140 pounds in debt in the 12 months following the birth of their first child. According to the financial comparison website, more than a third (39 per cent) of couples see their income fall after the birth of their first child as at least one partner either works less hours, or gives up their job altogether, in the subsequent months after a birth.

And with over 40 per cent of new parents going into the red in the first year of having a child, such consumers could well struggle to meet demands for payments on areas of their finances such as utility bills, credit cards and home loans. Meanwhile, money management difficulties could be even more pronounced for the seven per cent of parents who are more than 2,500 pounds in debt, with two per cent owing over 7,000 pounds.

Research from the company also showed that three-quarters of those suffering from a loss in earnings as they have a child are looking to make up for such a shortfall. Some 28 per cent of these consumers turn to their family for finanical aid, while ten per cent are set to take out a loan to help relieve the pressure on their finances. Meanwhile, 22 per cent are to use credit cards as a means of supplementing their spending.

Sean Gardner, chief executive of MoneyExpert, said: “For most of us worries about money go out of the window with the joy of having a baby. It’s hard enough coping with the sleepless nights and new responsibilities without thinking about budgets. But financially a new baby can cause havoc because of the combined burden of extra costs and reduced income. If money is already tight, it’s no wonder that so many families have had to turn to borrowing to make ends meet.”

He added that as households are set to face increased costs, taking out a loan or another form of credit is often “a sensible way to tide you over”. As a result, Mr Gardner urged those considering borrowing money to take the time to choose the right product for them.

Meanwhile, the financial services firm’s debt index reveals that more than 2.48 million Britons are “very concerned” about their capacity to manage their finances as the series of interest rate increases by the Bank of England’s monetary policy committee starts to make its impact felt.

Accordingly, opting for a low-rate loan may be an advisable idea for those concerned that pressure on their finances is set to increase after they have a child. Last month, James Ketchell, from the Consumer Credit Counselling Service, reported that Britons are becoming evermore prepared to take out secured loans and apply other forms of credit as they get older due to becoming “used to the idea” of borrowing while at university. Mr Ketchell also reported that the majority of those applying for a loan use the money for “vital things”.

Online Degrees in Education

Education is very extensive field and provides you several diverse opportunities. Degree holders or teachers can concentrate on early, middle or secondary students. They can also work in administrative positions. Professionals can also specialize in designing teaching material, adult education or they can also get training as an administrative specialist such as principal or vice principal.

Goals of Earning Online Degrees in Education

Teaching is considered as very easy going profession. But if you really want to become a good teacher you must have multiple skill and expertise like ability of handling students, strong communication skills and talent to convince, motivate and train. After learning any online degree in education from top accredited online university or college you will be able to train students to resolve the problems. If you start your career as elementary teacher you will teach all subjects of basic level. But on secondary level you will teach subjects of your area of ​​specialization. Higher level online degrees in education enable you for higher education positions such as community colleges, voluntary schools and universities.

Online Degrees in Education

Several online degrees from associates to doctor levels are available. Many top accredited online universities and top accredited online colleges offer online degrees in education. Following are the online degrees available.

O Associates Degree in Education
O Bachelor Degree in Education
O Masters Degree in Education
O Ph.D. Education Degree
O Degree in Early Childhood Education
O Master Degree in Education Administration

Online Associates in Education

Online Associates Degree in Education is ideal for working individual to make a career move. It is very beneficial because it is very focused and practical without vast time obligation of bachelor's degree. You will focus on a general education courses that include sciences, social sciences, arts and humanities. After meeting associates level degree your potential careers paths Incorporate teaching in a Head Start program, Elementary school Para professional and teacher assistant. Associates degree is considered as initial level online degree in education.

Online Bachelor Degree in Education

Online Bachelor Degree in Education provides you an option to become certified K-6 Teacher. You will get thorough knowledge of K-6 elementary teacher certification, advanced educational studies, human recourse development, corporate training and higher education. You can select any specific subject of your interest. You will be able to help young students to develop skills and acquiring knowledge. After meeting online bachelors you can work as elementary / high school teacher, counselor, course developer, researcher and college professor.

Online Masters Degree in Education

Online Masters in education enables you to join better paying administrative jobs. Masters degree gives you the chance to become certified professional after bachelor. MAT or MIT and M.Ed. Are the common master degrees available in education. You can continue to work as teacher or choose to work as principal or assistant principal. This degree provides opportunity to professionals to earn degree with job. You can earn this online degree in education to advance your career. Following are some master's concentrations available

O Administration and supervision
O Adult education
O Distance learning
O Special education
O Curriculum and technology

Online Ph.D. Education Degree

Online Ph.D. Degree is the highest level online degree in education. It is suitable for passionate professional wishes to gain higher grade job. It is basically for individuals already having teaching experience. After eaching online masters degree you can teach as professor at university. You will also able to conduct research and apply what you learn. You can specialize in elementary and secondary education, special education, adult education and higher education.

Online Degree in Early Childhood Education

Online degree in early childhood education is also an important online degree in education. After learning this degree you will be able to work with children below the typical school age between 3 and 5. Course work includes child psychology, parenting and early learning strategies.

Professional finds job in elementary or pre-schools. Early Childhood Education professionals effectively train young children during critical time in which formative learning, skill building and social growth takes place. Children who gain proper training at this stage of life can effectively find their way through the academic and social rigors that every student will have to face later in life. That's why schools, families and government spend considering money on early childhood education.

Online Master in Education Administration

Online Master in Education Administration is a unique online degree in education. It is designed for education professionals who have keen interest in administration issues. Course work includes education finance, school law, duties of principal, community relation and supervision of personnel. Degree needs internship experiences in school administration at administrative and principal level. Plenty of jobs are available in educational administration. Educational administrators can work on variety of jobs ranging from day care administrator to college president or school principal. Administrators have good communication skills and able to prepare budgets, supervise student's progress, manage everyday operations, fund raise, designing policies and standards and command institute to maintain the state and national standards.

Elan Credit Card – Mystery Solved

While completing the research for this article, admittedly I was becoming a bit frustrated. What is it with these companies that have credit cards offers that no one could seem to access online? Seriously, what is the point?

If I am interested in your organizations’ credit card, I would expect to go online and search for your card and…voila, an entire website with all the information I need appears. It’s not magic; it’s the way things should be, any good marketer knows that.

Well to my surprise, this is not what I experienced while searching for the Elan credit card. Instead I was greeted with a card member services page for all my search effort. Now tell me, how can I become a member when I can’t even find information on the credit card offer to decide if to follow through with an application.

On further investigation, I realized that the Elan membership page was powered by Elan Financial Services so I thought If I visited their site, I might gain access to the details of the Elan credit card offer.

Once I landed at http://www.elanfinancialservices.com it became clear why there were no specific credit offers splashed across the Internet and on this occasion I would let go of my frustration because I now understand what Elan is all about.

You see Elan is actually a transaction management company that offers credit cards and other financial services to its partners.

They do not offer credit cards to the general public, but rather they handle the background work such as card authorization processing, system monitoring and point of service transactions to name a few.

You would need to be a business entity in order to benefit from the services of the Elan credit card. This is because your business would partner with Elan to provide credit card services to your customers and management of the day to day transactions would be handled and supported by Elan Financial Services

As an example the following credit cards provided by these two companies are powered by Elan, but the cards are issued in the banks name.

o Central Pacific Bank Credit Card

o Bloomfield State Bank

Even though the Elan option did not work out, there are many other credit card offers available on the market. You can search through many different categories to find the card that is right for your circumstances. Categories include:

o Airline Credit Cards

o Balance Transfer Credit Cards

o Business Credit Cards

o Bad Credit Credit Cards

o Rewards Credit Cards

o Student Credit Cards

These are just a few of the categories available, so don’t delay, start your credit card search today.

Garden for Birds # 3

Well, another week is passing us by.

I want to thank everyone who writes me back.

Gardens and birds can bring total strains together.

IS NOT IT GREAT!

I feel as though I'm getting to know you and we are becoming neighbors.

You may have fledgling by now.

None for me just yet.

Even with Michigan weather, things are changing in the yard everyday now.

Birds come and go.

Plants seem to grow a foot some days.

New blooms, new plants.

Chipmunk is still on the loose.

Karen is in a battle with some rabbits munching down her pansies.

Baby powder works wonderful until it rains.

Same with ammonia water.

I may have to break down and get some liquid fence.

Oh well …………………….

Last week I was pointing out ways to attract more birds by building under the tree canopies.

There are birds that live in all levels of a forest and our yards.

By gardening with this in mind, attracting several birds will be easier for you.

PERENNIAL GARDENING

Perennial gardens can be a bit of a challenge, yet fun in many ways.

Trees and shrubs become more permanent fixtures in out yards.

As with trees and shrubs, write in on your plans where and what you maywant to plant.

Consider bloom time, how tall your plant may get.

What kind of spread will your new plants have?

Will it be invasive?

Do you want to color coordinate by planting several shades of pinks or yellows?

What about reds and blues?

What will grow in shade and what requires sun?

WHEW! ! !

So many questions I think I'm getting a headache.

FEAR NOT MY FRIEND!

One thing nice about gardening for birds …….

IT'S YOUR YARD!

You can do what you want and however you want to do it.

If you have enough of the attractors planted, birds will come.

Let's go ahead and get started.

Now I know I said it's your yard, but I'm going to help you spend some ofyour money.

You get the rest of the fun.

You get to plant and watch things grow.

You get the rewards of watching nature come to life in your yard.

GETTING STARTED

Once again, go to your zone maps and see what is hardy in your area.

Check out the local nurseries and garden centers.

Look in specialty catalogs.

I like to have something a bit unique if possible.

You know, that one plant that no one else has.

In landscaping, plants are done up in odd numbers.

1 ……. 3 …….. 5 etc.

One is an accent plant, something you want to show off or highlight a
Certain area.

Groupings are attractors.

Groupings can brake up a mundane landscape.

Highs and lows.

Breaks in the landscape force the eyes to follow more closely.

If you noticed on our walk, your eyes followed every up and down.

You were able to catch colors and wildlife you would've missed
If you were watching and walking a straight path.

So it goes in your yard.

WHAT TO PLANT

Some very common perennials are:

Black-eyed Susan (Rudbeckia).

Goldfinches love the seeds from these late summer bloomers.

Coneflowers (Echinacea purpurea).

Finches and other small seed-eating birds are attracted to the seed
Heads late into the fall.

Did you know there are several other seed-producing plants that you may have in your yard right now?

How about daylilies (Hemerocallis).

Yes, if let go, nice seeds can form on these perennial favorites.

Blanket flower (Gailardia)

Again, season long seed heads.

Crocosmia (Crocosmia 'Lucifer')

Besides being great hummingbird attractors, Crocosmia have seed pods

Similar to daylilies that open up to show their delights to the birds.

Perennial sunflowers (Helianthus multiflorus)

In late summer into early fall this plant continues to bloom and will fill up with goldfinches.

LOSE THE CLIPPERS

It is so tempting to want that nice groomed look in our yard.

Yet, to make it bird friendly, you will need to lighten up on the clippers and pruning sheers.

Keep some of those old faded bloom stalks standing.

Do not be so quick to cut back that branch.

Your work of art is on going and you will figure it out.

It's fun when you can add a planting or move them around.

Birds will find your yard more friendly when they have a place to rest and feed.

Think of the nesting possibilities.

Another bonus is strangers that will stop just to peek at your masterpiece.

That will give you a warm fuzzy.

An important part to any yard is of course your personality.

Be sure to put plenty of your personality into your yard.

Time to go.

Until next time my friend.

Be sure to smile, you might confuse someone

Ron

Http://www.backyardbearingtips.com/

Choosing Discount Heating Supplies

A heating supply can also send a chill to run down your spell by its exorbitant pricing. Heating is not a luxury that we can avoid to cut down the expense. It's rather a necessity the price of which can make one feel helpless. Due to the numerous available options in the market today, the mind sometimes gets lost in the minefield of jargons and we might end up buying something which may turn out to be a senseless investment.

Since the buyers are now opting to shop almost everything over the net, many companies lure the customers by providing them with the options of deals and offers. Many companies in this industry offer discount heating to their clients by doing their utmost to keep their prices down and run a variety of offers and discounts at any given time. With these offers people are often given the luxury of heating at affordable and economic prices in order to meet and exceed customer expectations each and every day.

The companies do not just sell their products at lower prices they also provide the customer with other benefits also. Installing and servicing all kinds of home temperature and comfort equipments including furnaces, hybrid heating system, furnaces and other heating equipments like boilers, thermostats etc. To complete your system is one of the strategies that these companies use.

They work to make your heating more affordable and sustainable. Such companies make sure that you get the right heating appliance for your requirements as quickly as possible and at the lowest possible price. Sometimes companies are able to sell products as such low trade prices because of the fact that there is no middle man involved and they are selling their product directly from the stock. Here the buyers are able to get their products at a fraction of the retail price.

An intelligent buyer should always do a market research before procuring the benefits of these best deal offers. He or she should compare the prices offered on different sites before buying a product so that he knows which discount is for real and is best in nature. Another excellent customer service feature being offered by many companies today is price matching. Since companies know that both they and their competitors offer numerous discounts and benefits scheme for the customers, it becomes impossible for them to know if and they become overpriced in the pricing of some items. This results in loss of sales.

So they declare that they would match the price of their competitors in the hope that the client will prefer shopping with them instead of their competitors. This is also one of the marketing gimmicks. Buying an item in a large quantity can also help a customer procure heavy discounts from the company. So, rather than buying one or two items, the buyers can take the advantage of industries tighten margin by buying them in bulk quantities. So, you might get an ultimate deal with your central heating or boiler purchase. All you have to do is to select the best discount available in the market today and you may get your product at a great price.

Rohan Online Half Elf Ranger Class Build (PvP-PvE)

Half Elf Ranger Class Build (PvP/PvE)

The half elf ranger build in my opinion is the king of solo. This build is designed to bombard enemies from an insane attack range. The Ranger has a decent critical rate and some great rooting spells.

Stat Build: Your leveling points should be distributed as 1VIT – 3 DEX or This ranger build has no psyche so you are gonna rely on pots for your mana so you must be careful not to deplete it too soon.. You will have some decent HP with 130 points of VIT just in case someone might be lucky enough to get close to you.

This build has a large distribution of DEX to boost your ranged attack quite a bit. You will have great damage and a long range to do it in.

PvE: The easiest class to solo with by far and one of the fasted classes to level also. Most mobs won’t even get close enough to you to do any damage since you have long attack range and have the ability to slow your target mobility speed. Only ranged mobs will have that chance to get a few shots off before they hit the ground bleeding. You only really need to cast one skill per mob before they die since you will be doing some nasty normal ranged attack damage. You will also have an easy time when in a high level mob grind party. You don’t really have to move around much just let tankers tank and do a little pulling here and there.

PvP: The ranger class i one of the few classes that do well against ranged and melee based classes in PvP. You take down magic type classes pretty easily and melee classes can be stunned and slowed down to a crawl before they can get to you. You can do some powerful critical damage at a long range using Critical Shot. The ranger has some great PvP skill at their disposal including Luxury Shot and Premium Shot leaving enemies with missed parts of their HP bar lol. A nice spell to initiate your PvP sequence is Speed Wind which boosts your attack speed to an insane rate that lasts 10 seconds. When a melee class finally does get to you, hit them with Brandish Kick which has a 70% chance to stun target for 9 seconds. You can kite away from enemies easily since you have increased mobility skills.

Conclusion: This ranger build is balanced and you will have extended use of your skills and will be able to solo and pvp well. You don’t have a whole lot of mana so be careful. Remember that range is your advantage, don’t let melee get to close or they will rip you up 🙂

Stat Point Build at Level 99

The recommended spell upgrades:

(Half Elf Archer Tree)

1. Darkness-Level 5: Increase dark dmg 100%, res50% 8% chance decrease target’s 30% atk spd for 7 sec.

2. Psychic Pierce-Level 1: 160% of normal dmg.

3. Long Shot-Level 5: Increase 50% of attacking range for 9 min.

4. Enchanted Arrow-Level 5: Increase arrow damage by 30 for 30 min.

5. Fainting Pierce-Level 5: 35% chance decrease target movement speed by 50% for 10 sec, last 18 min.

6. Bleeding Shot-Level 1: Effect ‘bleed’ dealt 70% of normal dmg every 3 seconds, occur 5 times.

7. Nimble-Level 5: Increase dex by 30%, lasts 30 min.

8. Brandish Kick-Level 5: 70% chance stun the target that last 9 second.

9. Feeble Arrow-Level 1: Decrease target 3% of str last 30 seconds.

10. Fatal-Level 5: Critical dmg increases by dex * 3.0, last 15 min.

11. Sprint-Level 4: Increase movement speed by 80% in 27 seconds.

12. Evade-Level 1: Increase evasion rate by 10% last 18 min.

13. Piercing Root-Level 4: Normal attacks 130%, 50% chance hold the target in place for 5 second.

14. Double Strike-Level 1: Increase 20% of normal dmg, attack target twice.

The recommended spell upgrades:

(Half Elf RangerTree)

1. Crossbow Mastery-Level 5: Increase X-bow’s atk by 25%, last 30 min.

2. Open Eyes-Level 1: Instantly removes root status.

3. Trick-Level 1: Wouldn’t get attack by npc guard during gvg and during red-name period, last 5 min.

4. Detect-Level 1: Detect hidden target within the range of 10m, last 30 sec.

5. Dissapear-Level 1: 50% chance become hidden, last 30min. moving, atking or using item will expose.

6. Siege Shot-Level 5: Unable to move for 10 sec, mean while atk + 90%.

7. Murder Shot-Level 5: Increase atk dmg by murder count * 90.

8. Speed Wind-Level 5: Increase atk spd by 160%, last 10 sec.

9. Kael’s Arrow-Level 2: Create 100 bolts with dmg of 120.

10. Alacrity Blow-Level 5: Increase dex by 15%, last 30 min.

11. Strip Shot-evel 5: Ignore defense, increase dmg by 70%

12. Rank Shot-Level 1: Total damage = weapon’s rank * 50.

13. Critical Shot-Level 5: When hit the target, 90% chance occur critical hit.

14. Premium Shot-Level 1: Increases weapon’s atk by 200%.

15. Magic Guard-Level 1: Do not affect by magics for 10 seconds.

16. Luxury Shot-Level 1: Increases weapon’s atk by 200%.

17. Winged Foot-Level 5: 18 mp per sec, party member increase movement spd by 100%.

The 15 Best Venues for Outdoor Weddings in the USA

There are many perfect outdoor wedding venues all over the country. We have narrowed it down to the fifteen of the best spots for an outdoor wedding in the country.

1. Maui, Hawaii

Hawaii is the perfect go-to destination for wedding locations because of its stunning beaches and very hospitable people. This island is known to be the most romantic island in Hawaii because of the waterfalls and lush landscape. Winter and early spring are the peak seasons so be sure to book your wedding when there are fewer guests.

2. Laguna Gloria in Austin, Texas

This ideal location is referred to as one of the best wedding venues by The Knot. It offers an Italian Villa-inspired aura that attracts patrons from all over the country. The winding Colorado River can be seen from the villa and adds to the perfect view. The building is lit in different colors after sunset, which adds to its appeal.

3. Kauai, Hawaii

Kauai is the least developed island in the state of Hawaii. The untouched flora and fauna abound in the island and is a good choice for nature-loving couples. The waters in the beaches are also clear as crystal. This is perhaps one of the best choices for beach weddings. The lush tropical landscape of the island earned its moniker “The Garden of Isle”.

4. Napa Valley, California

Napa Valley is known for producing some of the best wines in the country. The picturesque valley offers a nice backdrop to the romantic vineyards of Napa. The sunny weather of California offers additional warmth to your outdoor wedding. During the month of September, many people come to visit since it is the harvest season. It is best to book during months when there are few visitors.

5. Rimrock Ranch in Pioneertown, California

This wedding spot is perfect for a couple who desire a Bohemian-inspired wedding. The ranch resembles a scene out of the wild, wild west and there are plenty of cabins are available for guests. A good barbecue is ideal for the reception.

6. Miami, Florida

Miami is famous for its weather and its beaches. There are many nightclubs around the city and this is perfect for couples who want a Caribbean-inspired wedding but on home soil. The city is also known for its amazing food which blends American culture with a Latin American kick.

7. San Francisco, California

The Golden Gate Bridge and the Palace of Fine Arts are two of the most iconic wedding landmarks in the country. Aside from the nice weather and rolling hills, the old Victorian architecture adds to the perfect view. There are many parks scattered around the city which can be rented and used for your dream wedding.

8. Jackson Hole, Wyoming

The Teton Mountains are a majestic backdrop to that wonderful wedding that couples look forward to. The breath-taking view of the snow-covered mountain makes it extra special. This is perfect for guests who want to do some hiking and go to museums and bars. It is important, however, to check the weather update before you book as the area is prone to a lot of storms.

9. Jardin de Buis in New Jersey

The magnificent topiaries and labyrinth of Jardin de Buis is an excellent choice for couples who look forward to a romantic and glamorous garden wedding. The estate grounds feature green houses, a barn and tall, mature trees.

10. New York City

New York City has many facilities and hotels that can be used for weddings. What makes New York City a perfect outdoor wedding choice is its urban landscape. At night, office building lights add to the romantic mood of a perfect outdoor wedding location. Although some hotels may be expensive, there are many parks and rooftop wedding venues in this big city.

11. The Big Island, Hawaii

The biggest island in Hawaii, The Big Island is a perfect destination for couples who want to tie the knot amidst the breeze of Hawaii’s blue waters. Suggested activities are snorkeling, horseback riding, nature trekking and of course, strolling through Hawaii’s perfect beaches.

12. Little Nell in Aspen, Colorado

The snow covered mountains of Aspen Colorado is a perfect background for couples who would like a change for the usual beach wedding. Guests can go skiing and do other outdoor snow activities. The view of the mountains with the pine trees are scenic additions to that picture-perfect wedding that couples dream of.

13. Newport, Rhode Island

Newport, Rhode Island is a simple yet fulfilling choice for couples. The lighthouses in the backdrop relive the glory of New England. Newport is warmest during summer so it is highly advised to book at these times.

14. Froggsong Gardens in Seattle, Washington

For couples who are planning a garden wedding, this is a good choice with an amazing garden landscape. Guests can also explore the richness of Seattle as there are many good restaurants and museums in the city.

15. Dunton Hot Springs in Dolores, Colorado

This is a unique wedding destination since this is a restored ghost town. As a matter of fact, couples can rent the entire town for their own liking. There are also spas, fitness centers and a hiking trail for your wedding guests. Plus, during the winter, its picturesque snow-scapes are a perfect backdrop to your wedding ceremony.

Wide Area Network (WAN)

Types and Characteristics of WANs

What is a WAN?

There are two prevailing definitions of a Wide Area Network (WAN). The book definition of a WAN is a network that spans large geographical locations, usually to interconnect multiple Local Area Networks (LANs). The practical definition of a WAN is a network that traverses a public network or commercial carrier, using one of several WAN technologies

What are its Main Components?

The main components for a WAN are routers, switches and modems. These components are described below in the hardware section.

CPE – Devices on the subscriber premises are called customer premises equipment (CPE).

The subscriber owns the CPE or leases the CPE from the service provider. A copper or fiber cable connects the CPE to the service provider’s nearest exchange or central office. This cabling is often called the local loop, or “last-mile”.

DTE/DCE – Devices that put data on the local loop are called data circuit-terminating equipment, or data communications equipment (DCE). The customer devices that pass the data to the DCE are called data terminal equipment (DTE). The DCE primarily provides an interface for the DTE into the communication link on the WAN cloud.

Hardware

In a WAN you will need various types of hardware components for it to function. The typical items of hardware that you will need in a WAN are:

Router – An electronic device that connects a local area network (LAN) to a wide area network (WAN) and handles the task of routing messages between the two networks. Operates at layer 3, and makes decisions using IP addresses.

Switch – A switch is a network device that selects a path or circuit for sending a unit of data to its next destination. Operates at layer 2, and uses MAC addresses to send data to correct destination.

Modem – Short for modulator/demodulator, a modem enables a computer to communicate with other computers over telephone lines. Operates at layer 1, where signals are converted from digital to analogue and vice versa for transmission and receiving.

Wan Standards

WANs operate within the OSI model using layer 1 and layer 2 levels. The data link layer and the physical layer. The physical layer protocols describe how to provide electrical, mechanical and functional connections to the services provided by the ISP. The data link layer defines how data is encapsulated for transmission to remote sites.

Encapsulation

Encapsulation is the wrapping of data in a particular protocol header. Remember that WANs operate at the physical layer and the data link layer of the osi model and that higher layer protocols such as IP are encapsulated when sent across the WAN link. Serial interfaces support a wide range of WAN encapsulation types, which must be manually specified. These types include SDLC, PPP, Frame delay etc. Regardless of WAN encapsulation used it must be identical on both sides of the point to point link.

Packet and Circuit Switching

Circuit switching and packet switching are both used in high-capacity networks.

The majority of switched networks today get data across the network

through packet switching.

Circuit-switching is more reliable than packet-switching. Circuit switching is old and expensive, packet switching is more modern.

General Routing Issues

What is a Routing Protocol?

A routing protocol is a protocol that specifies how routers communicate and exchange information on a network. Each router has prior knowledge of its immediate neighbours and knows the structure of the network topology. The routers know this because the routing protocol shares this information.

Protocol

RIP (Routing Information Protocol) was one of the most commonly uses protocols on internal networks. Routers use RIP to dynamically adapt changes to the network connections and communicate information about which networks routers can reach and the distance between them. RIP is sometimes said to stand for Rest in Pieces in reference to the reputation that RIP has for breaking unexpectedly and rendering a network unable to function.

Routing Algorithms

Distance Vector

This type of routing protocol requires that each router simply inform its neighbours of its routing table. The distance vector protocol is also known as the bellman-ford algorithm.

Link State

This type of routing protocol requires that each router maintain a partial map of the network. The link state algorithm is also know as Dijkstra’s algorithm.

IGRP

IGRP is a type of distance vector routing protocol invented by cisco used to exchange routing data in a autonomous system. Distance vector protocols measure distances and compare routes. Routers that use distance vector must send all or a portion of their routing table in a routing update message at regular intervals to each neighbour router.

Addressing and Routing

What does routing mean?

Routing is the process of deciding how to move packets from one network to another.

The directions also known as routes can be learned by a router using a routing protocol then the information is passed from router to router along the route of the destination.

IP Address’s

Every machine connected to the internet is assigned an IP address. An example of an IP address would be 192.168.0.1. IP addresses are displayed in decimal format to make it easier for humans to understand but computers communicate in binary form. The four numbers that separate an IP address are called Octets. Each position consists of eight bits. When added to together you get 32 bit address. The purpose of each octet in an IP address is to create classes of IP addresses that can be assigned within a network. There are three main classes that we deal with Class A, B and C. The octets of an IP address are split into two parts Network and Host. In a class A address the first octet is the network portion, this determines which network the computer belongs to, the last octets of the address are the hosts that belong to the network.

Sub netting

Sub netting allows you to create multiple networks within a class A, B or C address. The subnet address is the address used by your LAN. In a Class C network address you would have a subnet mask of 255.255.255.0. A subnet mask identifies which portion is network and which is host. For example 192.168.6.15 the first octet three octets are the Network address and the last octet being the host(Workstation). It is important to subnet a network because gateways need to forward packets to other LANS. By giving each NIC on the gateway an IP address and a Subnet mask it allows the gateways to route packets from LAN to LAN. Once the packet arrives at its destination, the gateway then uses the bits of the subnet portion of the IP address to decide which LAN to send the packets.

Circuit Switched Leased Lines

A circuit switched network is one that establishes a dedicated circuit (or channel) between nodes and terminals before the users may communicate. Here are some terminologies associated with a Circuit switched network.

Frame relay is a telecommunication service designed for cost-efficient data transmission between local area networks (LANs)

Basic rate interference is a service used by small business for internet connectivity. An ISDN BRI provides two 64 Kbps digital channels to the user.

Primary rate interface (PRI) is a telecommunications standard for carrying voice and data transmissions between two locations

All data and voice channels are ISDN and operate at 64kbit/s

Packet Switching

http://www.raduniversity.com/networks/2004/PacketSwitching/main.htm – _Toc80455261

Packet switching refers to protocols in which messages are broken up into small packets before they are sent. Each packet is then transmitted over the Internet. At the destination the packets are reassembled into the original message. Packet switching main difference from Circuit Switching is that that the communication lines are not dedicated to passing messages from the source to the destination. In Packet Switching, different messages can use the same network resources within the same time period.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asynchronous_Transfer_Mode

Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) is a cell relay, packet switching network and protocolwhich encodes data into small fixed-sized cells.

ISDN is used to carry voice, data, video and images across a telephone network. ISDN stands for integrated services Digital Network. Isdn also provides users with a 128kbps bandwidth. This is done through frame relay. Frame relay complements and provides a service between ISDN, which offers bandwidth at 128 Kbps and Asynchronous Transfer Mode which operates in somewhat similar fashion to frame relay but at speeds from 155.520 Mbps or 622.080 Mbps. Frame relay is based on the older X.25 packet switching technology and is used to transmit analogue signals such as telephone conversations.

PSDN stands for packet switched data network and is a data communication network. Packet switched networks do not establish a physical communication signal like the public telephone does (circuit switched network) Packets are sent on a fixed length basis and assigned with a source and a destination address. The packets then rely on the routers to read the address and route the packets through the network.

Mobile and Broadband Services

Digital Subscriber line(DSL) is mainly used to bring high bandwidth connections to homes and small business’s over a copper wire telephone line. This is can only be achieved if you stay within the range of the telephone exchange. DSL offers download rates of up to 6mbps allowing continuous transmission of video, audio and 3D effects. DSL is set to replace ISDN and compete with the cable modem in providing multimedia to homes. DSL works by connecting your telephone line to the telephone office over copper wires that are twisted together.

Asymmetric Digital Subscribers Line is most commonly used for home users. It provides a high download speed but a lower upload speed. Using ADSL, up to 6.1 megabits per second of data can be sent downstream and up to 640 Kbps upstream.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Symmetric_Digital_Subscriber_Line

Symmetric Digital Subscriber Line is a digital subcriber line which runs over one pair of copper wires. The main difference between ADSL and SDSL is the difference in upload and download speeds. SDSL allows the same upstream data rate and downstream data rate as ADSL upstream can be very slow.

[http://searchnetworking.techtarget.com/sDefinition/0],,sid7_gci558545,00.html

HDSL High bit-rate Digital Subscriber Line, one of the earliest forms of DSL, is used for wideband digital transmission within a corporate site and between the telephone company and a customer. The main characteristic of HDSL is that provides equal bandwidth in both directions.

IDSL is a system in which data is transmitted at 128 Kbps on a regular copper telephone line from a user to a destination using digital transmission.

The Local Loop enables operators to connect directly to the consumer via copper local loops and then add their own equipment to offer broadband and other services. This process involves operators accessing local exchange buildings to connect to a network of copper lines which connect them to homes and businesses. BT is an Example of a Local Exchange. The local loop connecting the telephone exchange to most subscribers is capable of carrying frequencies well beyond the 3.4 kHz upper limit.

Benefits of using DSL

DSL can provide virtually instantaneous transmission of voice, data and video over ordinary copper phone lines. A DSL connection can eliminate delays when waiting to download information and graphics from the Internet. It provides users with a cost effective high speed Internet connection. Another benefit is that a DSL connection is always on-line (like a LAN connection) with no waiting time for dialling or connecting.

There are now more than 10 million broadband connections in the UK. By December 2005 there were 9.792 million broadband connections in the UK and the average broadband take up rate during the three months to December was more than 70,000 per week.

Orchid Types for Your Home

Some of the most interesting plants that you may find at your local nursery or home improvements garden center is the orchid. The orchid is an exquisite flower and very unique as it stands out among the rest of the flowers that are available to purchase. The orchid usually has one long stem which has one large blossom to multiple small blossoms at the top. There are many different orchid types available today.

The beautiful orchid has graced our world for many centuries. Today the varieties of orchids exceed 25,000 and the number of hybrids is well over 100,000. The number of hybrids is continuously growing due to the orchid lovers are creating new and more interesting flowers. The reason to create hybrids is to increase color, design and durability of the plant. By durability, meaning how easy is it to grow, making the bloom last longer, and be less susceptible to dying from under watering. These are the orchid types that are available to purchase in the nursery.

Every orchid comes from one of two very large families. One family is called the Terrestrial and the other is the Epiphytes. Within each of these families, the different orchid types will vary. The two groups are based upon where and how the orchid grows. The first family, the Terrestrials, is the orchids which we normally see and many of the orchids grow their roots beneath the soil though some may grow their roots above and below the surface of the soil. The term for this particular species is called semi-terrestrial.

One of the more common orchid types within the Terrestrial family is the Cymbidium. This orchid was one of the first of the orchid types to be cultured and thought into our homes. These orchids can be found in the regions of Southeast Asia, Japan and Australia. The Cymbidium should be planted in a mixture of soil and rock and is one of the more popular orchids. One attribute of the Cymbidium is that this is one of the very few orchid types that can withstand cooler temperatures.

The second of the two orchid types is the Epiphytes. These orchids grow with their roots exposed to the elements and can be found growing in a multitude of different places such as on trees and in rocky areas. Due to the places in which these orchids live, they offer a higher number of seeds to ensure that they are disbursed successfully by wind as well as animals and insects. When an orchid grows on a tree, its roots will obtain the needed moisture from the bark of the tree. The Epiphytes are easier to grow than the Terrestrial of due to the fact that the watering process is much easier.

There are over 1,000 different Epiphytes today and each one is just as beautiful as the next. These orchid types are typically found in the more tropical areas like Australia, Polynesia, Southeast Asia and Northern India. Out of these orchid types, the Dendrobiums are the most common but do not bloom as often as we would want them to.